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FAQ
 
1.
What is the Nanopulser?
2.
Why create such a product? How does extending the service life of a lead acid battery benefit me as a consumer?
3.
Where is Nanopulser manufactured?
4.
How long has this technology been in existence? Is this a relatively new concept?
5.
Why was Nanopulser released in US market first rather than in Japan?
6.
What does Nanopulser have in its range of products?
7.
Does the Nanopulser incorporate any sort of fuse within its design?
   
8.
Is the Nanopulser waterproof?
   
9.
Does Nanopulser have any built in battery/capacitors in it?
10. I previously bought a 'Voltage Stabilizer' device that claims to deliver better performance, fuel consumption and prolong battery life. How is such a product different from Nanopulser?
11. I have seen other products that work on the same principle as Nanopulser, however their frequency range is at 40,000Hz - 700,000Hz which is far higher than Nanopulser's rated frequency of 10,000Hz. Does this means that the other products are far more effective?
12. I'm getting a new car soon. Can I transfer Nanopulser onto the new car battery?
13. Can Hybrid Vehicles (HV), such as TOYOTA Prius, ESTIMA Hybrid, LEXUS Hybrid and HONDA Insight use Nanopulser?
14. Why does my friends' Mercedes Benz and BMW battery seems to last them a lot longer than the battery in my Asian car?
15. Why does the battery in my Asian car seems to only last between 9-15 months when used in local conditions? I thought it should be much longer...?
16. So if I buy an expensive AGM or Gel Deep Cycle battery and install it on my Asian car, I would expect to have the same battery lifespan as those fitted in a BMW or Mercedes Benz?
17. I previously bought a battery that has 'SILVER' and/or 'CALCIUM' technologies incorporated inside. If so, the battery should be 'better' and more 'hi-tech' and hence there should be no need for a Nanopulser right?
18. My diesel vehicle has two batteries, which should I install, the "PG-12S" or "PG-24S"?
19. Can I modify or extend the connector cables in order to insert into the cigarette power supply?
20. The lead acid battery has been left unattended for a really long time. Can this battery be revived to full function?
21. My car has four batteries in parallel because 3 amplifiers 4 sub-woofers are installed. How should I install the desulfator?
22. What is the meaning of CCA value?
23. Can Nanopulser be installed on Maintenance Free or Deep Cycle Batteries?
24. Can the battery performance be judged by just reading voltage?
25. I have a voltage reader connected through the cigarette lighter and fuse wiring. Wouldn't this help me to monitor and extend the battery's life per se?
26. Can a flat battery be revived by Nanopulser?
27. Can Nanopulser endure vibration from normal/rough daily usage?
28. Does Nanopulser emit any high frequency noise which would affect car audio systems or any other vehicle onboard equipment?
29. If I install two units of Nanopulser on the 12V battery, would it double the efficiency or work more powerfully?
30. There seem to be many kinds of lead-acid batteries, do Nanopulser work on them?
31. Although Nanopulser comes with a three year warranty, how long can the components work?
32. I'm concerned with rising costs and would mainly use cheaper batteries on my car, how long can the battery be prolonged by Nanopulser?
33. If Nanopulser is so beneficial to the battery, why is it not installed direct and as standard equipment fitted from car manufacturers?
34. If Nanopulser is beneficial to the battery, will we be able to see this device as standard equipment fitted onto our new cars from local car distributors?
35. I'm going to replace the battery because it's been almost 2 years since new. Can this seasoned battery be revived and service life prolonged?
36. Full size buses and trucks have huge twin batteries. Does "Nanopulser PG-24S" work well on such applications?
37. While the battery is charging or discharging, should Nanopulser be connected or disconnected?
38. Where should Nanopulser be placed within the engine bay?
39. The electrolyte fluid loss from my electric forklift tends to be quite frequent. Is this solvable by Nanopulser?
40. Which Nanopulser model should UPS (Uninterrupted Power System) use?
41. If the Nanopulser is to be installed onto the host battery for 365 days, isn't the battery going to be flat?
42. How much voltage does a good condition battery show?
43. How much acid density should a good condition battery have?
44. Does the car audio output the hi-fi sound by "Nanopulser"?
45. Does the engine benefit in any way when Nanopulser is used?
46. Would the battery voltage reading go up after using Nanopulser?
47. How much voltage can the Nanopulser PG-12N/12S withstand?
48. I have installed the Nanopulser on a battery which stands alone. It has been over two weeks since but the battery performance does not seem to improve.
49. Why does it take time to revive the battery?

 

What is the Nanopulser?

It is an environmental electronic device conceived and created to solve a common problem in lead acid batteries - Lead Sulfation. Lead Sulfation is one of the main causes of battery failure regardless of battery design or material components. Operating climate and driving conditions further compound the sulfation effect.
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Why create such a product? How does extending the service life of a lead acid battery benefit me as a consumer?

The company originally looked at environmental issues associated with consumerism. Natural resources depletion and material wastage was a major concern and threatens life on earth in future. In view of the ecology balance, the company hoped to contribute to society by harnessing technology to reduce wastage and resource depletion. If you can extend the life of your battery by 50%, it translates into less frequency of battery change. This not only benefits you in terms of cash savings, but also it contributes to less demand for resource acquisition since battery production is reduced. When this happens, more resources can be preserved or made available to enhance our lives in other avenues.

Remember: When it comes to the environment, every drop makes an ocean!
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Where is Nanopulser manufactured?

The Nanopulser is 100% manufactured and assembled in Nagoya, Japan by NNP Electronic Corporation. NNP (Nagoya National Parts) Corporation was established in 1958 and is one of the top leading manufacturer of automotive and consumer electronics. They have been a long time partner of Panasonic Corporation and well established for their quality in Research and Development for electronic technologies. Part of the Power Train Energy Module used in Hybrid Vehicles retailed by Toyota and Honda are contributed by NNP. The company does not believe in cutting corners by using cheap assembly parts or poor quality standards from China, Thailand, Taiwan, Malaysia etc.

How long has this technology been in existence? Is this a relatively new concept?

The original concept of Nanopulser started in 1998 and gradually reached production status by 2004. After this, it was first launched in US in 2005 catering to the most stringent and demanding market segment - Marine and Pleasure Craft industry. It was later in 2006 that Nanopulser was released in Japan.
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Why was Nanopulser released in US market first rather than in Japan?

The company believed that sea vessel operations having critical equipment onboard would be the toughest proving ground for Nanopulser technology and if its performance gained approval and recognition from the marine industry, then its capability would more than exceed any other lead acid battery applications in most conditions. It has achieved the company's goal since then.
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What does Nanopulser have in its range of products?

The Nanopulser comes in different voltage ratings from 12V to 72V to suit different battery application sizes. ie. PG-12S/N for 12V batteries, PG-24H for 24V batteries, PG-36H for 36V batteries and so on.

Note: You may use different model ratings depending on your battery configuration.
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Does the Nanopulser incorporate any sort of fuse within its design?

Yes, the circuitry is protected by a diode breaker. Overloading or reversal current will trigger off the breaker.
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Is the Nanopulser waterproof?

The circuitry is cocooned within gel silicone and snap-sealed by the ABS plastic body. It has no problems with water splashes or in heavy downpour situations.
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Does Nanopulser have any built in battery/capacitors in it?

No it doesn't. It is powered by the host battery and certainly does not contain any capacitors! Capacitors while useful in other electronic applications, do not have possess any engineering merit within vehicle engine operations.
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I previously bought a 'Voltage Stabilizer' device that claims to deliver better performance, fuel consumption and prolong battery life. How is such a product different from Nanopulser?

Please read the Toyota Battery Technical notes. It is explained that the lead acid battery acts as a 'voltage stabiliser' or filter to block out abnormal transient currents that may damage sensitive components in the vehicle. The Voltage Stabiliser products which typically contain small capacitors are incapable of absorbing high spikes from the alternator unlike your lead acid battery.

Please also read www.fuelsaving.info/electric.htm on the fallacy surrounding such products as explained by a professional engineer. You would be better off spending your money on other useful items.

More explanations on the capacitor myth by experts can be found here.

In short, a 'Voltage Stabiliser' product:
- does not desulfate the lead plates of the host battery (capacitors absorb electrical energy),
- has no influence over engine operation parameters (it contains no embedded program),
- cannot help 'save' fuel or 'increase' performance (modification of vehicle hardware + software is required).
- will not improve emissions (ppm parts per million values are negligible).

Nanopulser does not make claims of any such 'benefits' to the consumers. It is an environmental product aimed at extending a lead acid battery's service life and saving the environment. In doing so, consumers save money as well. Any other improvements observed would be due to a more efficient charging system onboard.

It has been previously reported that poorly manufactured 'voltage stabilisers' were suspected of being the cause of engine fires within the vehicle.

Please save your money for other useful purchases.
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I have seen other products that work on the same principle as Nanopulser, however their frequency range is at 40,000Hz - 700,000Hz which is far higher than Nanopulser's rated frequency of 10,000Hz. Does this means that the other products are far more effective?

Please be careful of using excessive pulse amplitude for a given battery size. It can cause "shedding", or the driving off of active plate material in relatively large pieces, something to avoid since useful lead is being removed unnecessarily. Nanopulser was developed to gently dissolve sulfation crystals because of the "shedding" phenomenon, and hence do not support the use of high excessive frequency. By using dual low frequency pulse, Nanopulser avoids damage to the active lead material.
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I'm getting a new car soon. Can I transfer Nanopulser onto the new car battery?

Of course you can! This way, you would maximise battery life/performance and minimise unnecessary expenditure on lead acid batteries in future. That is the whole purpose of Nanopulser!
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Can Hybrid Vehicles (HV), such as TOYOTA Prius, ESTIMA Hybrid, LEXUS Hybrid and HONDA Insight use Nanopulser?

Yes, of course! Nanopulser was designed to work the hybrid system as well. Hence the special coverage for Hybrid Vehicles offered. By using the Nanopulser, optimal hybrid performance can be expected during the HV ownership period. However, Nanopulser can only be used on the auxiliary starter battery but not on the Ni-MH module pack.
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Why does my friends' Mercedes Benz and BMW battery seems to last them a lot longer than the battery in my Asian car?

Let us take a closer look at German car manufacturers' perspective.

  1. German design consideration places the battery in the trunk for safety reasons against frontal collision accidents.
  2. Cooler temperatures improve the service life of batteries (ie. trunk location).
  3. The batteries used in German cars are typically VRLA (Valve Regulated Lead Acid) batteries. They are Gel filled batteries without liquid electrolyte. The deterioration of the active materials is slower than in lead acid batteries generally.
  4. Gel batteries are used since they do not freeze up during cold morning starts unlike liquid electrolyte lead acid batteries ie. 5.30am in Dortmund is usually -5C.
Based on the above reasons, it is little wonder that German designed cars tend to have a longer lasting battery life in comparison to Asian makes.


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Why does the battery in my Asian car seems to only last between 9-15 months when used in local conditions? I thought it should be much longer...?

Let us again look at the operational conditions that influence battery lifespan.

  1. Typically our ambient temperature is around 35C and early morning is about 28C. Relative humidity levels hovers at about 84%
  2. In lead acid batteries, for every 15C increase over the baseline of 27C, the battery tends to lose 40% of its useful lifespan (lead sulphation and heat). Our hot tropical climate does not make an ideal environment for lead acid batteries. To add more stress to the battery, typical engine convectional heat is at approx. 69C to 75C. That's hot!
  3. Our stop-n-go traffic situation also prevents the alternator from fully charging the battery. You need at least 25 mins of non-stop driving or minimum distance of 30km to charge your battery.
  4. The charging dilemma is further compounded by the fact that we tend to add more electrical load to the car by switching on the air-conditioner system, installing aftermarket products such as I.C.E. (In Car Entertainment) systems, mobile phone accessories, navigational GPS system, video screens, electronic information and sensor gauges, security proximity alarms, decorative LED (Light Emitting Diodes) panel lights etc. These represent parasitic loads on the alternator and thus limit the dedicated charge amount from power source to battery during the course of engine operations.
          So in light of the above reasons, we now know why our batteries don't last long.
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So if I buy an expensive AGM or Gel Deep Cycle battery and install it on my Asian car, I would expect to have the same battery lifespan as those fitted in a BMW or Mercedes Benz?

On the contrary, you would most likely derive no benefit and may have a shorter battery service life.. Why so?

These AGM or Gel batteries were made to be used in cool to cold environments based on car manufacturer design considerations. In a typical Asian car where the battery is usually located in the engine bay, it is extremely hot and the heat (radiant + convectional) greatly deteriorates such batteries in addition to the hot climate locally. Heat unfortunately accelerates breakdown and decay of the gel electrolyte, promotes swelling of the lead plates and advances lead sulfation. Soon the gel battery fails...

Such batteries although good, are however unsuitable to be used in our hot tropical climate unless you intend to relocate the battery from your engine bay to your trunk space where it is much cooler in comparison.

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I previously bought a battery that has 'SILVER' and/or 'CALCIUM' technologies incorporated inside. If so, the battery should be 'better' and more 'hi-tech' and hence there should be no need for a Nanopulser right?

SILVER (Ag) - Composition amount of 0.06% is added to the plate grid/straps alloy to reduce likelihood of corrosion. The rationale behind is that when the battery undergoes charging, bubbling occurs and this give rise to an acidic mist formed above the electrolyte solution. Such mist would overtime corrode the plate straps and weaken them, which eventually break. Once this happens, the battery is broken and cannot store charge.

CALCIUM (Ca) - Composition amount of 0.1% is added to the grid plate alloy which increases the structural strength of the negative sponge lead plates. It was used after lead-antimony was thought of to be structurally weaker by comparison. Ca strengthens the lead plates but have a shorter lifespan. Antimony lead plates are weaker but have a longer lifespan. Ca batteries also contain slightly lesser capacity compared to antimony batteries. Ca plates tend to experience more gird growth and cracking.

The combination of these 2 elements in the common battery means a longer shelf life from a storage point of view (stockist/retailer), since Ca and Ag when combined in the grid plates reduces self-discharge rates and water loss in electrolyte solution. It does not mean a longer service life advantage per se to the end consumer.

Regardless of internal construction materials used, lead acid batteries are still subject to lead sulfation as it is inherent by nature. By using Nanopulser, you are assured maximum service life is achievable through solving the plate sulfation issue.

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My diesel vehicle has two batteries, which should I install, the "PG-12S" or "PG-24S"?

Caution! There are two ways.

If the 2 batteries are connected in "series", install "Nanopulser PG-24S" on the primary terminals of the two batteries.

If the 2 batteries are connected in "parallel", install "Nanopulser PG-12S" on either battery terminals.

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Can I modify or extend the connector cables in order to insert into the cigarette power supply?

We don't recommend modifying the connection as most vehicles do not connect directly to the battery from the cigarette lighter when there is no engine operation. This is because of the ignition key cut function.

Please do not attempt to lengthen the connector cables as the optimal resistance value has been carefully calculated for Nanopulser to work efficiently when connected to the host battery.

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The lead acid battery has been left unattended for a really long time. Can this battery be revived to full function?

Yes, it can be revived. This is assuming the element plates do not have physical corrosion. You most likely would require charging to agitate and energise the electrolyte.

If the acid density is under 1.21 or less, and CCA value is 60% or less, it takes time to revive the battery, otherwise it might be impossible.

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My car has four batteries in parallel because 3 amplifiers 4 sub-woofers are installed. How should I install the desulfator?

It depends on the battery capacity. We recommend that two "Nanopulser PG-12S" be installed on the either battery.

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What is the meaning of CCA value?

CCA means cold cranking ampere. This is the method of judgement by SAE standard on the ability of the battery to deliver instantaneous power under sub-zero (-18c) temperatures. Also, it indicates the power capacity of the battery plates.

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Can Nanopulser be installed on Maintenance Free or Deep Cycle Batteries?

Yes, of course it can! It was conceived and designed to work on ALL 12v batteries regardless of active component materials used ie. Lead, Antimony, Calcium, Gel, AGM, Hybrid.

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Can the battery performance be judged by just reading voltage?

No, unfortunately. Even if the battery outputs over 12.0V, the capacity held within the lead plates might be low because of lead sulfation built-up. A Digital Battery Analyzer would be more accurate in assessing the internal condition of the battery and hence the overall battery service status.

Simple analogy: Do you think a thermometer reading is capable of detecting liver failure?

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I have a voltage reader connected through the cigarette lighter and fuse wiring. Wouldn't this help me to monitor and extend the battery's life per se?

No, unfortunately. As explained briefly, the functions are basically limited to reading information on your battery's current condition or warn of impending battery failure via engine operations. It does nothing to extend the battery's life. The battery is still subjected to lead sulfation which is inherent. Where is the real benefit?

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Can a flat battery be revived by Nanopulser?

Please charge it at once. Since the lead plates are kept clean by the Naopulser, it should be able to regain full service after charging.

Jumpstart the vehicle and drive for a minimum of 30km without air-con, headlights or radio. This would allow the vehicle alternator to efficiently recharge the flat battery.

The only exception is when your battery has physical damage to the internal lead plates. The battery would not be able to hold enough charge capacity to start your engine even after charging.

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Can Nanopulser endure vibration from normal/rough daily usage?

Yes, it can. There will be no problem since it is encased in gel silicone. It can also withstand collision accidents (where casing is still intact).

Caution! If you have a frontal or side impact collision to your car, please check your battery as the element plates may have sustained irreversible physical damage and the battery would be soon rendered useless even after charging it.

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Does Nanopulser emit any high frequency noise which would affect car audio systems or any other vehicle onboard equipment?

No, it doesn't. Nanopulser was tested by VCCI in Japan. It is called the EMC test which is Electro Magnetic Compatibility. There is no noise emission or interference with all onboard electronics or electrical parts in the vehicle.

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If I install two units of Nanopulser on the 12V battery, would it double the efficiency or work more powerfully?

No, they would not. Only one Nanopulser unit should be installed on a 12V battery. top

There seem to be many kinds of lead-acid batteries, do Nanopulser work on them?

Yes, Nanopulser works on all categories of lead acid batteries. It was originally conceptualised for such applications.

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Although Nanopulser comes with a three year warranty, how long can the components work?

The durability of the Nanopulser is almost 10 years. It has no moving and consumable parts in it. It mainly consists of surface mounted CPU modules and micro circuitry parts.

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I'm concerned with rising costs and would mainly use cheaper batteries on my car, how long can the battery be prolonged by Nanopulser?

Cheap batteries can be prolonged by the Nanopulser to last beyond expected timelines. If we compare the high quality batteries and cheap ones, the difference between the two maybe on the amount of pure lead used, structural strength of the element plates and concentration of the electrolyte. By using Nanopulser, don't be surprised if you can match the durability of the higher end batteries or even exceed them!

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If Nanopulser is so beneficial to the battery, why is it not installed direct and as standard equipment fitted from car manufacturers?

As captured in the Battery Technical notes, Toyota Corporation (World's No.1 auto maker) acknowledges lead sulphation as a cause of battery failure! Bearing in mind car makers' business is in manufacturing and retailing of consumer/industrial vehicles, the concept of optimal battery technologies is not their main priority concern. They mainly fit each outgoing vehicle from factory with a starter battery which is spec-ed to the engine capacity/starter motor requirements. They are mostly adequate on a stock configured vehicle. The subsequent usage behaviour of the end-user and battery operational environment are ignored and usually not considered. Moreover, better engineered batteries although desirable, would weigh down production cost, which ultimately erode profit margins and corporate earnings - "A dollar saved is a dollar earned".

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If Nanopulser is beneficial to the battery, will we be able to see this device as standard equipment fitted onto our new cars from local car distributors?

The reasons outlined above also apply towards the commercial direction of our local car distributors. We shall endeavour to make available the Nanopulser device to ALL authorised distributors/car importers locally and hope to persuade them to adopt Nanopulser which would benefit customers and value-build their respective businesses.
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I'm going to replace the battery because it's been almost 2 years since new. Can this seasoned battery be revived and service life prolonged?

Yes, it can. Please try it. If the element plates do not have any physical damage to it, it can be rejuvenated and reconditioned by Nanopulser.
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Full size buses and trucks have huge twin batteries. Does "Nanopulser PG-24S" work well on such applications?

Size is never a consideration. If it's a Lead Acid battery, it would work well. top

While the battery is charging or discharging, should Nanopulser be connected or disconnected?

Nanopulser should be connected at all material times. It is during charge + discharge phase that lead sulphate is formed on the element plates. Nanopulser provides the active desulfating function 24/7 and 365 days a year. That is how it is able to dissolve the lead sulphate deposits and prevent it from recurring on the plate surface. That's the difference in Nanopulser technology!
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Where should Nanopulser be placed within the engine bay?

Nanopulser PG-12N/12S/24H can be placed onto the host battery, engine fuse box or on the side of the battery. It should be kept away from direct engine heat, the exhaust manifold, radiator fan and accessories belt. Convectional heat from the engine bay is not a problem.
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The electrolyte fluid loss from my electric forklift tends to be quite frequent. Is this solvable by Nanopulser?

Yes. After installing Nanopulser and the battery conditioned for some time, the rate of electrolyte evaporation will lessen as compared to pre-conditioning.
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Which Nanopulser model should UPS (Uninterrupted Power System) use?

Firstly determine the number of batteries the UPS employ.

 2 batteries in series.

  • Install one unit of Nanopulser PG-24H
 3 batteries in series.
  • Install one unit of Nanopulser PG-36C
 4 batteries in series.
  • Install one unit of Nanopulser PG-48C or PG-48F
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If the Nanopulser is to be installed onto the host battery for 365 days, isn't the battery going to be flat?

Nanopulser PG-12N/12S consumes only 35mA (0.035 Ampere) which is very minute. This is compared to an interior dome-light which consumes 850mA (0.850 Ampere).

Furthermore, the Nanopulser incorporates an A.S.O. (Auto Shut Off) function circuit inside. This prevents unnecessary consumption of battery power when not needed.

*We recommend that the engine should be started every 4 weeks in the event of prolonged garaging for cars and trucks.

*If the Nanopulser is installed on typical small batteries used on a motorcycle, the engine should be started every 1.5 weeks.

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How much voltage does a good condition battery show?

A good condition battery should measure an output of over 12.60 V. In a fully charged battery, each cell should produce 2.11V, so total of 6 cells = 12.66 V
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How much acid density should a good condition battery have?

Using a hydrometer, the Specific Gravity should show over 1.25 in typical hot climate. top

Does the car audio output the hi-fi sound by "Nanopulser"?

The battery can output the high power by "Nanopulser". The car audio, AV and speaker system will be enhanced by it.
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Does the engine benefit in any way when Nanopulser is used?

Strictly speaking, since the charging efficiency goes up, the load of the alternator should correspondingly go down. This is provided the battery in the first instance is in good condition. What this means is that without any impediment to accepting charge (no sulphation on lead plates) and as a result, the alternator works less to provide the same supply. As explained previously, the battery temperature sensor + battery current sensor would feedback data to the ECM to determine Variable Load Response on the alternator. So with a good condition battery with clean plates, the load of the engine goes down and fuel efficiency and engine performance is optimised.
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Would the battery voltage reading go up after using Nanopulser?

Yes, it would. After a period of usage, the continuous desulfating action would gradually restore the maximum surface area attainable on the element plates. This in turn would allow greater charge capacity storage and hence back to the 2.11V reading per cell.

Attention!
When the battery is charged and discharged repeatedly through frequent daily operation, the battery revives in due course.

  1. You would see improvement in charging efficiency. (Smoother engine operation)
  2. You would see improvement on the capacity of the battery.
  3. You would see improvement on the discharging performance. (Powerful cranking start)
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How much voltage can the Nanopulser PG-12N/12S withstand?

Nanopulser PG-12N/12S which is designed for use on 12V batteries can withstand currents over 16V. The typical car alternator outputs a voltage of between 11.80V to 14.99V which is well within the tolerance of the Nanopulser. Even in the unfortunate event that the alternator regulator is faulty and delivers 15V to 16V to the battery, the Nanopulser unit will still be unaffected and functional.

Some of the battery chargers for deep cycle batteries and solar panels output over 16V. There will be no problems using the Nanopulser on such charging systems.

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I have installed the Nanopulser on a battery which stands alone. It has been over two weeks since but the battery performance does not seem to improve.

In such a case, the battery should be charged repeatedly.

How to refresh a stand-alone battery
  1. Install the Nanopulser onto the battery terminals (parallel or series).
  2. Charge it (them) by a battery charger repeatedly using a maximum of 10% of the rated Ampere. You may use a trickle charger for convenience.
  3. Slowly allow the battery to discharge and when voltage shows under just 12V, repeat the charging process.
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Why does it take time to revive the battery?

The Nanopulser outputs a special dual pulse waveform into the Lead acid battery. This reversal technology dissolves the sulfation (PbSO4) gradually and clears the element plates, giving maximum surface area. This is a much safer system for the lead acid battery in comparison to other product forms which typically deliver short bursts of strong voltage currents via a timed micro controller to the lead plates. As such, the Nanopulser would require a period of between 10 days to 2 months depending on the size, initial condition and subsequent usage of the subject battery.
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